Page 1 | Volume 1 | The Leadership Journal of Dallas Baptist University



3 Volume 1 (Winter 2021-22) Edited by Dr. Michael S. Whiting Ducere Est Servire “To Lead is to Serve” THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY


5 CONTENTS A Word from the President......................................................................................................4 Dr. Adam C. Wright Foreword...................................................................................................................................6 Dr. Jack Goodyear, Dean A Leadership Conversation with Dr. Gary Cook, Chancellor..................................................8 Preaching that Inspired Commitment to Racial Unity and Equality: Learning from the Pulpit Leadership of Gardner Calvin Taylor............................................12 Dr. Bryan R. Price Generational Divide: The Future of Women’s Ministry in the 21st Century.......................26 Dr. Barbara J. Parker Leading Oneself and Others in Crisis Situations: Exploring Biblical Motifs.......................43 Dr. David D. Cook Formative Attitudes and Behaviors of Generation Z: Psychological Models, Servant Leadership, and the Future of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). ...................57 Dr. Kevin M. Gandy In the Age of School Shootings: President Obama’s Moral Leadership in the Wake of the Tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary.............................................................70 Joshua Longmire The Role of Forgiveness in Leadership and Organizational Well-Being: A Phenomenological Study....................................................................................................85 Shalini Patras Life Without A Full-Length Mirror: The Importance and Impact of Self-Awareness in Leaders......................................................................................................97 O. Kent Comstock, Jr. BOOK REVIEWS..........................................................................................................111 DOCTORAL GRADUATES AND DISSERTATIONS 2020-21................120 Ducere Est Servire “To Lead is to Serve” THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY VOLUME 1 (WINTER 2021-22)

6 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY A Word from the President Dr. Adam C. Wright Ph.D. in Leadership Studies The study of leadership has always inspired me to rise above myself and become a better reflection of God’s unique calling on my life. As a student of leadership, I have come to realize that one of the greatest cravings in our world today is a hunger for Christian servant leadership. As we strive at DBU to embody the ultimate model of servant leadership through Jesus Christ, my hope is that you will discover deep fulfillment in serving and meeting the needs of others. This inaugural edition of Ducere Est Servire: The Leadership Journal of Dallas Baptist University is the culmination of a vision that began among a handful of professors in 2013 in one of our many faculty meetings. I was privileged to serve as Dean in the Cook School of Leadership from 2013 until being named President of DBU in 2016. As we dreamed of what could become of the Cook School of Leadership, we envisioned an academic division that produced Christian servant leaders, global thinkers, and Christian scholars. I am so pleased to see the reality of this vision manifesting itself every day on University Hill at DBU. As visions of moving into a new building on campus patterned after Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello took shape, where our academic division would be housed (we moved into this space in 2015), we also envisioned adding academic programs, strengthening the size and

7 capability of our students, and intentionally seeking opportunities to engage our students in thoughtful academic work beyond the classroom. The idea of an academic journal encompassing leadership studies was ambitiously thrown into the mix of goals for the Cook School of Leadership, and thus began the journey of what is now before you today. I am so very proud of our faculty, staff, students, and graduates of DBU. God is doing a marvelous work through wonderful Christian leaders making a difference in the world for the glory of God alone! As we give praise to God for the expression of a vision stirred in the hearts of faculty passionate about loving God and loving others, I pray you are blessed, challenged, and inspired by what you read in our journal as we seek to lead by serving. To God be the glory! Adam C. Wright, Ph.D. President and proud former Dean of the Gary Cook School of Leadership

8 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY Foreword Dr. Jack Goodyear Dr. Jack Goodyear is Dean of the Gary Cook School of Leadership at Dallas Baptist University In the Gary Cook School of Leadership, we understand that the world needs Christian leaders who are willing to step out in faith and lead in all sectors of society. Through our Ph.D. in Leadership Studies, Ed.D. in Educational Leadership, Master of Arts in Leadership, Master of Arts in International Studies, and Master of Education in Higher Education, our goal in the CSL is the same: to develop Christian scholars, servant leaders, and global thinkers who will impact the world for Christ. Our students serve in a variety of fields: health care, education, business, law, government, ministry, and military service. The interdisciplinary nature of the programs and diversity of the students contributes to our ability to achieve our mission in the CSL at Dallas Baptist University by producing Christian scholars with a heart for the world. As a result, it is our desire that God will continually produce effective leaders through our programs. We strive to accomplish our mission by exemplifying excellence in scholarship. One of the ways we seek to accomplish this goal is through the inaugural edition of our academic leadership journal. Through this journal, Ducere est Servire: The Leadership Journal of Dallas Baptist University, we aspire to share with our community the quality of scholarship produced by some our students, alumni, and faculty. We could fill pages and pages in this journal with recent, high quality work of our students and alumni. However, in this inaugural journal, we decided to focus on scholarship dealing with the massive disruption and multiple crises we have faced in recent years. While our world has been experiencing a time of disruption over the last few years, certainly this year, these disruptions have been magnified. The dual viruses threatening our society, racism and COVID-19, have revealed the void in leadership that will be filled by something in this world. We desire

9 for that void to be filled with servant leadership which specifically views humanity through the Imago Dei. We are all image bearers. And the threats facing our world today can only be adequately answered by first seeing the worth and dignity and value of every human being, most notably those so often left behind and marginalized. Whether it is the poor, affected doubly by a health crisis and a suffering economy, or people of color, impacted by the longstanding and systemic impact of racism, more than ever, our world needs Christian scholars speaking into these current crises with boldness and moral courage. The research in this journal thematically does just that. Our world is standing at an inflection point. How we respond to the crises before us will define us for at least a generation. History books will examine the various actions we do or do not take. It is our desire to be people who aptly live out what was one of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s favorite verses, Micah 6:8: “He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God.” Justice, mercy, humility. Those characteristics are what should define a servant leader. As you read through this journal, I hope those aspirations become more apparent to you as well. There is much work to be done; however, with God, we know all things are possible. For the first edition of this journal, we would like to extend special thanks to our president, Dr. Adam Wright, for effectively leading DBU through the current crises, demonstrating the servant leadership we aspire our students and graduates to exhibit. Likewise, we thank Dr. Gary Cook, our chancellor, for setting the example for years of servant leadership. Our school bearing his name not only properly honors him for his dedication and leadership, but provides a challenge for us all to strive to meet. Additionally, I am thankful for Dr. Michael Whiting for his work in editing this journal and making it happen. He truly is a Christian scholar, servant leader, and global thinker. One final note, we continue to remember the family of Kenny and Melissa Comstock. Kenny was one of our finest. Tragically, he passed away before this journal, which includes one of his scholarly contributions, could be published. His life as a husband, father, son, sibling, pastor, student, and friend truly exemplifies what we all would aspire to be. Our prayers continue for his family. I hope you benefit from and enjoy reading these articles from our students, graduates, and faculty. FOREWORD

10 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY A Leadership Conversation with Dr. Gary Cook, DBU Chancellor As a special part of this inaugural issue, we asked Dr. Gary Cook, who has been serving for five years as Chancellor of DBU, prior to which he served as President for 28 years, to share his leadership insights with our readers. Dr. Cook came to DBU in 1988 when the institution was facing significant financial problems and even discussions of closing the campus. Through seeking the Lord day by day, the support of donors, faculty, and staff who shared his faith that the Lord had a future for the school, and with a lot of patience and perseverance, the next nearly 30 years would witness spectacular growth. The University’s budget was stabilized, ending every fiscal year in the black; undergraduate and master's degree offerings were expanded along with the beginning of the doctoral programs; a campus beautification project included the building of several new colonial-style facilities; international student enrollment increased; a pioneering online education program was established; and so much more, making DBU one of the leading institutions of Christian higher education in the nation. It was fitting then for this inaugural issue to ask Dr. Cook to share his leadership insights drawing from decades of experience and walking with God, as well as wisdom he would offer for aspiring leaders as they will face their own challenges to faithful and effective service for His Kingdom. DS: What is one key principle you have learned about leadership through the years, and what wisdom would you give to the next generation? Cook: One of the characteristics of a good leader is that he or she takes the time to develop close friendships. Every leader needs friends who are both trustworthy and loyal.

11 A LEADERSHIP CONVERSATION WITH DR. GARY COOK, CHANCELLOR We need to always go to the Bible for words of wisdom. In Ecclesiastes 4:9-10 we find these words: “Two are better than one, because they have a good return for their labor: If either of them falls down, one can help the other up. But pity anyone who falls and has no one to help them up.” We discover in the Bible that even Jesus felt the need for friends. He had His twelve disciples who He lived and served with daily, and then there was a group of 72 followers who He sent out in teams of two to minister. It appears from reading the Gospels that Jesus had three very close friends whom He spent the most time with: Peter, James, and John. We find that He took these three with Him to the Mount of Transfiguration and again, on the night of His betrayal, He took them into the inner part of the Garden of Gethsemane. Jesus also had some social friends such as Mary, Martha, and Lazarus. We find Jesus several times in the Scriptures visiting in their home. In fact, on the Saturday night before Palm Sunday He once again spent the evening with them. It seems to me that He desired companionship before He began the most difficult week of His life. If Jesus needed close friends to do life with, then certainly we need close friends to do life with. In the Old Testament we find Daniel as a young man with his three friends, known as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Later, in midlife, we continue to see him living in the same home with these three individuals. Daniel went to their house and asked them to pray that he would be able to interpret the King’s dream. When Daniel was promoted by the King, Daniel then asked if his three friends also could be given governmental positions. Not only did he totally trust his friends, but he was very loyal to them. One of the most remarkable and touching stories of the Bible is the covenantal relationship that David and Jonathan had. Theirs was certainly a remarkable relationship. I believe every leader needs to have deep relationships with several friends who he can minister to and who can minister to him.

12 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY DS: What are some of your favorite books to recommend on the study of leadership? Cook: First, certainly the Bible. More can be learned from studying the Bible about leadership than any other book. Studying individuals like Joseph, Moses, David, Daniel, and Paul can provide the greatest insights in understanding how we should live our lives in service to God and our fellowman. Certainly, studying every word about the life of Christ would be the most important part of studying the Scriptures. A second book would be Good to Great by Jim Collins. This carefully researched and well-written book provides particular insight into what he terms, “level five leadership.” Level five leadership is really what we know to be called servant leadership, and it is what the Lord taught us when he asked us to be servants. The third book is The Contrarian’s Guide to Leadership by Steven Sample. Dr. Sample was one of the most highly regarded university presidents, serving at the University of Southern California for a number of years. Reading his book helped me significantly as I served as President of Dallas Baptist University. The fourth book I would recommend is Spiritual Leadership by J. Oswald Sanders. This book is really a classic and should be read by all church leaders as well as lay persons who want to live out their lives in devotion to the Lord in their vocations. Lastly is Hearing God written by Dallas Willard who served as the chair of the philosophy department at the University of Southern California. His book helped me to understand that praying was not just talking to God, but it was also listening for God to speak. The rich, spiritual insights I gained while reading this book helped me to truly understand how I could hear God’s voice more clearly and communicate with Him. DS: How should leaders respond when facing major challenges such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic? Cook: The children’s book that was the most inspirational to me was The Little Engine That Could. My mother read that to me over and over,

13 because she would always ask me what book I wanted to read, and I would always say, “I want to read that story one more time about the little engine that could.” Even when she would bring out new books to read, after she would read them, I would ask her, “Could we read that book about the little engine that could, too?” That book instilled within me long ago to believe that I should never, never give up. Then, when I went to college, I read a number of books about Winston Churchill. He was my favorite historical figure, and once again, I read about his perseverance, and I was stirred by his quote, “Never, never, never give up.” I was inspired greatly by the speech where Churchill stated, “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” Another quote of Churchill that greatly challenged me was, “To each there comes in their lifetime a special moment when they are figuratively tapped on the shoulder and offered the chance to do a very special thing, unique to them and fitted to their talents. What a tragedy if that moment finds them unprepared or unqualified for that which could have been their finest hour.” One of my favorite Biblical characters to study when I was in seminary was Joseph. He had great dreams for the future but then came terrible setbacks, disappointments, and problems. However, after many months and years of struggles, he was able to overcome through the Lord’s intervention in his life. As a result, Joseph saved an entire country, and at the same time he was able to be of support to his own family in their hour of need. When I served as President of DBU, I often thought of The Little Engine That Could, Winston Churchill, and Joseph, and I pleaded with the Lord to intervene to give me the wisdom and courage to do what I needed to do. I also prayed for perseverance. As I faced all the problems and difficulties, I read and meditated on the passage about endurance from Romans 5:3-4, “Knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; and perseverance, character; and character, hope.” A LEADERSHIP CONVERSATION WITH DR. GARY COOK, CHANCELLOR

14 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY Preaching that Inspired Commitment to Racial Unity and Equality: Learning from the Pulpit Leadership of Gardner Calvin Taylor Bryan R. Price, Ph.D. Dr. Bryan R. Price (Leadership Studies, '19) is Senior Pastor of Love Fellowship Baptist Church in Romeoville, Illinois. With a congregation boasting more than twelve thousand members at its peak, and a ministry spanning 42 years, during his tenure Gardner Calvin Taylor was one of the most influential Black pastors in the nation. He was a prominent leader in the National Baptist Convention, USA, and the second president of the Progressive National Baptist Convention, a denomination he helped form for the purpose of providing a platform for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.1 In addition to his local pastorate, Taylor was heavily involved in the civic and political life of Brooklyn, New York. As a highly sought after itinerant preacher, Taylor frequently crossed racial and ethnic barriers with the Gospel, using every opportunity to address matters of race during a time of heightened social unrest. This article focuses on the problem of racial equality in America, a malady that has plagued the nation for centuries.2 Taylor spent his career addressing matters of race from the pulpit, challenging listeners to take ownership of America’s spiritual and moral brokenness and to engage constructively in the work of social change. This article argues that Gardner Calvin Taylor’s approach to preaching was a key factor in his leadership of the pursuit of racial unity and equality. The purpose of this article is not to rehash an old discussion about race relations in America. Nor does it seek to create a new platform for a conversation already in progress. Instead, this article aims at a solution by examining the pulpit leadership of Gardner Calvin Taylor to discover how his homiletic method applied to racism in America. With Taylor’s example,

15 the hope is to stir those in pastoral ministry to appropriate their homiletic influence for the purpose of leading their congregations toward a commitment to racial unity and equality.3 Though it has been five decades since the end of the Civil Rights Movement in America, challenges related to racism continue to persist, particularly the relationship between Black and White Americans.4 Remarkably, Black people have demonstrated incredible resilience. This is due, in part, to a strong sense of faith in God and a strong connection to the church. Scholars recognize that in the face of challenges stemming from racism, historically, the church in the Black community has been a haven of hope and source of fortitude for Black people.5 According to the literature, from every major era in Black American history from slavery to Civil Rights, the Black church emerged as the primary institution enabling Black people to maintain a sense of humanity and dignity amid severe oppression and deliberate dehumanization.6 At the helm of the Black church was the Black preacher. Authors such as Du Bois, Frazier, Raboteau and others confirm that, while formal authority over Blacks resided in White power structures, Black people conferred informal authority upon their own clergy.7 According to Costen, since the time of the “invisible church” the Black preacher was recognized by the community as the “leader, priest, pastor, and prophet for the community.”8 With a hermeneutical lens comprised of key biblical narratives highlighting God’s intimate involvement in human affairs, a high view of a suffering and victorious Savior, coupled with a lived experience, the Black preacher helped to develop an accessible theology that spoke clearly to the plight of Black people.9 Furthermore, over time, the Black preacher cultivated and employed a unique homiletic tradition that provided a conduit for communicating biblical and theological truth contextualized to the Black experience in America. The result was a preached word that not only produced in Black people a will to endure, but an unquenchable thirst for liberation. Gardner Calvin Taylor hailed from that tradition. This article draws attention to four aspects of Taylor’s preaching that contributed to his effectiveness as a leader in the work of racial unity LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

16 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY and equality. First, rather than remain silent, Taylor confronted the issue of racism in America head on. Second, Taylor employed the prophetic voice evidenced by compassionate accountability, identifying injustice and calling for repentance regardless of the racial composition of his audience. Third, Taylor considered all aspects of the Gospel. His was a Christ-centered approach to preaching and holistic application of the Gospel as a key element of his efficacy. Lastly, the plight of Black people in America and the soul of the nation consumed Taylor’s heart. He was deeply concerned about whether America would ever live up to her democratic ideals of freedom, justice, and equality. Thus, in his preaching, Taylor engaged problems related to racial unity and equality with commitment and consistency. CONFRONTING THE ISSUE Taylor dealt with racism head on, using his pulpit as a platform to speak directly to the vitriolic institution that had become so engrained in the American ethos. To ensure issues related to prejudice and discrimination remained a priority for America, Taylor often employed the prophetic voice common in the Black homiletic tradition.10 Modeled after the seers of the Old Testament, prophetic preaching is described by Thomas G. Long as “preaching that announces the reign of God over against powers and principalities that seem to hold sway in the culture.”11 Prophetic preaching confronts societal ills, announces pending judgment, calls people and nations to repentance, and gives hope to the oppressed, righteous remnant of God.12 Taylor’s preaching continuously exposed the sin of racism and admonished people to change. His tone was sharp but not overbearing; poignant but not without hope; trenchant and yet immersed in grace. Taylor’s words brought about a sense of conviction but sent listeners away encouraged both to do better and to be better. An example of such preaching is in a sermon entitled “There is Power in That Cross” delivered in 1953 at the annual meeting of the American Baptist Convention in Denver, Colorado. Early in the sermon Taylor pointed to America’s hypocrisy, chiding her disingenuous efforts in dealing with issues such as racism, unjust war, and political corruption. His charge was insincerity on the part of those

17 in positions of power who enact policies that gave the impression of a high moral standard, only because other nations were watching. After speaking broadly to the sins of the nation, Taylor aimed his rebuke at the Christian church, the one institution in American society whose business should be setting the moral tone of the nation. He noted: In the Denver dailies they carried on their front page, and rightly, the account of a Christian leader in another state, and I blush to say he was Baptist, who said that if the Supreme Court of the United States finds segregation illegal, 311,000 Baptists are ready to throw the cloak of religion and the sanctity of Christ around the institution of segregation by setting up private schools in order to circumvent the last refuge of the American judicial arena. That from a Christian leader!13 Taylor’s point, if the church would willingly succumb to the evils of racial discrimination and segregation for the sake of keeping their white children in schools separate from Black children, then what hope was there for the world? After such a bold indictment of White Baptists, one would expect a less than desirable reaction from a White audience. However, the opposite was true. Dr. Henry H. Mitchell, Professor Emeritus of Preaching at the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia, was present to hear Taylor’s address. Mitchell reported: Following the sermon, those whose throats would allow it joined in the spiritual “Let Us Break Bread Together.” The rest just choked up and sobbed, but every eye of the 20,000 seemed moist with tears. The greatly distinguished Dr. C. Oscar Johnson (a white pastor from St. Louis) arose from his seat on the platform and lifted Dr. Gardner C. Taylor of Brooklyn from the floor with a powerful hug. Each being tall and large, it is hard to imagine a more powerful witness for justice and against racial discrimination. The majority of the hearing host may have been “conservative,” content with the United States as it was, but nobody needed to be defensive, for none had been attacked. They had just been gently led to experience vicariously the very kingdom of God and had yielded to it with spiritual joy and gladness.14 Together, the sermon excerpt and the audience’s response reveal the potency of prophetic preaching applied to homiletic leadership. Taylor’s LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

18 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY sermonic method provides evidence that opposing racism through preaching can be profitable when it comes to changing the hearts and minds of individuals, because the confrontational nature of prophetic preaching cuts to the soul and demands a response. Those who answer in the affirmative leave with a renewed sense of responsibility, recommissioned and empowered to impact their own circles of influence for the betterment of all. COMPASSIONATE ACCOUNTABILITY Taylor’s preaching was not one sided. He spoke truth to White and Black people alike; identifying fault in both communities to ensure one side did not bear the burden of blame, while the other neglected efforts in favor of reconciliation by simply waiting for circumstances to change. An example is in a sermon entitled “Men’s Schemes and God’s Plans,” delivered in 1967: We need some means of cleansing our past within the framework of our common commitment to this land. Under God, whites need to admit their failure to let justice run down as a mighty stream. Black Americans need to confess that they have not employed their opportunity to its maximum. We need to take each other’s hand in this country and openly admit our prejudices and hostility, ask God for guidance and go forward, making black destructionists and white segregationists feel the weight of the nation’s condemnation.15 Words such as those uttered by Taylor are critically important in the struggle for racial unity and equality, and Black preachers bare tremendous responsibility as far as articulating similar sentiments to audiences in their own communities. The reason rests in the fact that Black people are not always receptive to criticism from Whites, because what Whites have to say often comes across as insensitive due to an inability to genuinely identify with the plight of Black people. A quote from theologian James Cone illustrates how Blacks process criticism from Whites. In his notable work, God of the Oppressed, Cone reflected upon certain theological assumptions prevalent in the academy, while at the same time, witnessing massive devastation in the Black community brought on by the Detroit riots in 1967. Cone stated:

19 My concern was intensified during the black insurrection in Detroit in the summer of 1967. … I remember the feeling of dread and absurdity as I asked myself, ‘What has all this to do with Jesus Christ—his birth in Bethlehem, his baptism … .’ I intuitively knew that the responses of white preachers and theologians were not correct. The most sensitive whites merely said: ‘We deplore the riots but sympathize with the reason for the riots.’ This was tantamount to saying: ‘Of course, we raped your women, lynched your men, and ghettoized the minds of your children, and you have a right to be upset; but that is no reason for you to burn our buildings. If you people keep acting like that, we will never give you your freedom.’16 Cone’s use of hyperbole is obvious, but it speaks clearly to the point of how Blacks perceive White criticism. When a Black person is murdered by police, Whites may mean well when they say, “What about black-onblack crime?” but they fail to realize, shifting the discussion to Blackon-Black crime does not provide a solution to police-on-Black crime or vigilante-on-Black crime. Likewise, for White conservatives to point out that abortion takes more lives than cases of police brutality may be correct. Nonetheless, Black people may perceive that statement as an attempt to deflect, or to minimize the issue at hand, which devalues the life of a Black person. Furthermore, such statements reveal an underlying and deeply ingrained subconscious assumption that White people are the only ones who have the right to determine what social issue takes priority. If Cone’s perception is common to most Black Americans, the Black preacher stands in the best position to hold both Blacks and Whites accountable for their part in fostering racial unity and equality. Only a Black preacher can effectively say, “Churches all black are no less guilty of racial sins than are churches all white.”17 Only a Black preacher using his prophetic voice can exclaim, “We are all realizing that ill will begets ill will. Antipathy is not one-sided. Majorities and minorities share the same hatred which is death to both. The same poison is discovered at the bottom of the heap which is also evident at the top.”18 These were Taylor’s words in a sermon entitled “They Shall Ask the Way” delivered in July 1950 at the Baptist World Alliance in Cleveland, Ohio. LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

20 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY Misgivings on the part of Black people does not suggest White preachers have nothing at all to say to a Black audience. A key element to Taylor’s preaching was compassion, an important characteristic of prophetic preaching. Texts such as Jeremiah 8:1-30 and 18-22 show how the Old Testament prophets often bore the hard message of judgment, but their words flowed from a heart broken over the spiritual condition of those to whom they preached. Moreover, it was common for the prophet not to view himself as a bystander, but as a participant in Israel’s waywardness, as seen in Isaiah 6:5. In “The Time of Thy Visitation,” lifted from Luke 19:14-44, it is clear that Taylor saw with eyes of possibility all that America was ordained to be, but he also saw where she had fallen short. Still, it was clear he left room for hope as he declared: America is a great and worthy dream of human dignity and equality beyond the accidents of race, breed, or birth. America represents in its democratic assumptions a brave new venture in the faith that people of diverse backgrounds and differing creeds can live together in harmony and mutual respect. This, I believe, is a God-given concept which is basic to the American contract with history. How often we have scarred the dream and violated the high destiny to which God has called this land. Now and again we gallantly moved forward toward the fulfillment of our destiny as a free and equal society. But we have too often fallen back, as if the destiny were too high for us. In all of these shifting scenes of stress and strain which mark our history, the God of the nation is testing us and sifting us before his judgment seat. He is examining our willingness to test in our commitment to freedom whether, in Mr. Lincoln’s words, a nation “so conceived and so dedicated” can long endure. If we but knew the things which belong to our peace.19 One detects the prophetic tone in Taylor’s statement. He does not overlook fault. He holds listeners accountable for their actions, but he does so with compassion. Taylor does not neglect the fact that America has failed to live up to her destiny. There is a gaping chasm between what God intended for America to be, and what she has allowed herself to become. Still, her fate is not final, God’s hand of grace has not lifted completely, if she would but repent. Furthermore, Taylor did not distance himself from the nation standing under the scrutiny of God but included himself as one that shares blame for the present quandary.

21 White preachers who take seriously the task of fighting for racial unity and equality will find value in adopting Taylor’s approach whenever presented with opportunities to speak to Black or interracial congregations. The possibility of greater receptivity increases where there is a sense of genuine compassion for the plight of Black people mixed with the truth of God’s word. A sense of authenticity coupled with a perception of togetherness in the struggle warrants respect and fosters trust.20 Likewise, White preachers should take this same approach when addressing White audiences. Sermons must expose the sin of racism, but compassion and grace are critical, especially in contexts where racism has become engrained, and racist comments, gestures, and assumptions are the result of generational ignorance. Preaching which lacks accountability for all parties involved is insufficient for inspiring change in a racially divided nation. The wounds are too deep for a salve. True healing and reconciliation require the painful surgery of open and honest dialogue, sincere confession, and the kind of forgiveness that leaves the injured party vulnerable to the point where trust is not optional but mandatory; and, where the perpetrator is forced to exercise a significant degree of empathy and humility. Preaching that holds together accountability and compassion as values for the entire community to embrace fosters such an environment, giving way to accomplishing the goal of racial unity and equality. CONSIDERING ALL ASPECTS OF THE GOSPEL Another key factor lending to Taylor’s efficacy was his Christ-centered approach to preaching coupled with a holistic application of the Gospel. There can be no wavering on the fundamental doctrine that all people have sinned, the penalty for sin is death, Jesus Christ died to pay the penalty for our sins, and that through faith in Christ sinners are justified, redeemed, forgiven, and have the promise of eternal life (Ro 3:23, 5:1-8, 6:23, 10:8-10: Jn 3:16; Eph 1:7). This is the essence of the Gospel embraced by the historic Christian faith, the message that reveals the depravity of man and provides the way to obtain personal salvation.21 Conversely, Thomas G. Long was correct in stating, “The Gospel does not speak to isolated individuals and then swivel to speak LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

22 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY another word to the world of politics and social systems. The Gospel speaks to the totality of human life, to people as they strive to be faithful among the many and complex interconnections of their lives.22 As evidenced in a sermon entitled “There is Power in that Cross,” Taylor believed that the Gospel moves beyond salvific implications. The Gospel carries with it a message of equality, affirming “that every creature, every human soul, is of infinite and endless worth to the heart of God.”23 The Christian Gospel is a message rooted in Jesus Christ, “a person—real, compelling, sustaining, empowering, imbuing, transforming.”24 So that anyone who finds difficulty in bringing prejudice-filled, hate-filled minds and hearts under subjection to the instruction of Christ, there is made available to all, by virtue of the Gospel, the power of Christ. This is a theological truth that Taylor insisted preachers proclaim widely across the pulpits of America. He voiced this notion in no uncertain terms: God in heaven knows that the pulpits of this land ought to be done with our pietistic, moralistic exhortations to people to do better. We ought to be through with our Ben Franklin almanac’s maxims on common sense, parading as the Gospel of light and power and grace and renewal. There is power in the cross of our Christ, if only pulpits of our land would declare it and the people of Christ who are committed to his way would walk in his steep path. …There is power in our cross to bridge the chasm between human beings, to bring people of diverse backgrounds together.25 Adopting Taylor’s homiletic strategy is to proclaim the redemptive and the transformative aspects of the Gospel, recognizing that the space between the spiritual new birth and physical death is a life called to exemplify and proclaim the Biblical concept that all humanity is made in the Imago Dei, in the image of God, and that “there is neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, male nor female, for we are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal 3:23). Preachers expound these biblical-theological conceptions because they are life-changing, timeless truths rooted in a God who can transform the hearts and minds of people, which, in turn, leads to changes in thought and behavior. During some of the most heated moments in Civil Rights history, Taylor stood in protest rallies, marched for justice, and spent nights in jail for the cause of racial justice

23 and equality. Yet, what fell from his lips time and time again were sermons founded upon and inspired by the Christian Gospel because he believed the Gospel message was the only message that could bring true healing to the nation. COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY That Taylor was committed to the issue of race is evident in his consistency in keeping the matter in front of his audience. An analysis of Taylor’s sermons displays his ability to weave the subject of race into messages that were not necessarily about race, showing more than creativity in developing illustrations, but also how pressing the issue was in his own heart. One of Taylor’s most notable sermons entitled “His Own Clothes” offers a perfect illustration. Consider the opening paragraphs of the sermon: Short of the cross itself and the betrayal by Judas, what the soldiers did to Jesus may well have been the humiliating part of our Lord’s suffering and death for you and me. …There is something uniquely cruel in being laughed at and mocked, set apart from one’s fellows and made the target of ugly jibes, cruel comment, and cutting laughter. One of the most painful and sinister weapons used historically against black people in this country was mockery and ridicule. Physical features were caricatured and exaggerated, and so the large white-lipped, wideeyed, blackened faces in minstrel shows became the notion of the way black people looked and acted. … Far crueler than our own experience was the kind of scorn and ridicule the soldiers heaped upon our Lord on the night of his crucifixion.26 Often, preachers will use a sermon to make a specific point, teach a critical lesson, or inspire action through the use of a text without considering the author’s original intent, eisegesis as opposed to exegesis.27 This was not Taylor’s habit. The main point of the text chosen for “His Own Clothes” was to magnify the silent suffering of Christ. Remaining faithful to the text, Taylor’s use of imagery and imagination was impeccable, painting a vivid picture of the abuse that became a precursor to the Lord’s ultimate sacrifice on the cross. Taylor’s exegetical treatment of the text stood well on its own, but being committed both to the text and to the impact of racism in America, he LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

24 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY drew a clear parallel between the Lord’s suffering and humiliation at the hands of Roman soldiers with the suffering and humiliation of Black people in America. Taylor opened with the betrayal and humiliation of Jesus, moved to the humiliation of Blacks, and moved again, back to the suffering of Christ, the primary focus of the text. A second example is in a sermon delivered at Taylor’s home church close to the Christmas holiday. Taylor entitled the message “The Promise in the Manger,” which derived from Luke 2:16. The purpose of the sermon was to magnify and celebrate the promise of a Savior fulfilled in the birth of Christ; and yet, even though Taylor delivered this sermon in 1980, ten years after the close of the Civil Rights era, the way he begins the message is telling of the pressing concern that continued to occupy his mind. The sermon opens with a word about the threat of birth, stating the way a child turns out in his or her later years is sometimes completely contrary to what a parent would have ever imagined when the child was born. Taylor explained, “Remember the various white Southern sheriffs of a bygone day with their vicious dogs, cattle prods, and fire hoses; recall lynch mobs holding up children to watch the torture of another human being. To think of these … having once been babes, sleeping so peacefully and feeding so gently at their mothers’ breast.”28 Next, Taylor moves to the hazard of birth, referring to the real and present dangers that lay waiting for a child in this world. He could have gone in any direction to illustrate his point, but he chose to invoke the horrors of lynching: Speaking of the hazards of birth, I marvel that we know of no time in our black history in this country when there was a movement among black people to not have children, particularly male children. I wonder sometimes if black mothers and fathers could look at a newly born, black male child in early generations without seeing the shadow of the lynch rope, a young body dangling by the neck, or the air sick with the odor of burning flesh. Did you know that between 1865 and 1940, more than four thousand people of color were lynched in this country without benefit of even the mockery of a trial?29

25 Taylor did not draw on race for every sermon illustration. Nevertheless, a sample of sermons spanning from the 1950s to the 1990s delivered to diverse audiences from pulpits around the world provides strong evidence substantiating the claim that Taylor’s preaching reflected an abiding passion for racial unity and equality. That he was committed to the cause of ending racism is without question, and that he remained consistent in his pursuit is clear, making his homiletic method worthy of consideration by present day heralds entrusted with the unsearchable riches of Jesus Christ. CONCLUSION Ronald Heifetz in his seminal work, Leadership Without Easy Answers, advocated for leadership that influences the community to confront its problems. He argued, “Instead of looking for saviors, we should be calling for leadership that will challenge us to face problems for which there are no simple, painless solutions.”30 Evidence suggests Taylor shared similar views. While reflecting upon the strategies employed during the Civil Rights Movement, in a sermon entitled “Climbing Jacob’s Ladder,” Taylor told his audience, “The day of the dramatic, eloquent national utterance is gone. We will likely not see it again in our lifetimes. Whatever is going to be done in the black community will have to be done at the local level; each church, each minister carving out an area of responsibility, accepting an assignment from God.”31 There remains within the Black community a void in the kind of tangible leadership that mobilizes local communities for constructive activism, strategizing, and problem solving. The reasons are too broad in scope for the limited space of this article. Nevertheless, as a result, when crises occur localized riots and looting ensue because there is no clear direction and too few leaders capable of channeling the anger and energy of the masses for positive engagement that brings substantive change. What if, however, preachers, both Black and White, would adopt Taylor’s understanding, that it behooves local churches and local pastors to give leadership in their own communities. Moreover, what if those preachers consulted Taylor’s homiletic method and committed themselves to confronting matters of racial injustice head on, approached audiences with compassionate accountability, appropriated the message of the Gospel in all of its fullness and power to the pressing LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

26 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY social concerns of society, and did so with unwavering commitment and consistency. Based on Taylor’s accomplishments, this study contends, those preachers would send parishioners away each week with a renewed vigor and zeal for the work of racial unity and equality. NOTES 1Robert D. McFadden, “Rev. Dr. Gardner C. Taylor, Powerful Voice for Civil Rights, Dies at 96,” New York Times, April 6, 2015, accessed April 12, 2017, 2Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York, NY: New Press, 2012), 59-63; Also, Richard Lischer, The End of Words: The Language of Reconciliation in a Culture of Violence (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2005), 1-19. 3Lischer, End of Words, 164-65. 4“On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart,” Pew Research Center: Social & Demographic Trends (June 27, 2016): 23. Accessed June 5, 2020, 5Eric C. Lincoln and Lawrence H. Mamiya, The Black Church in the African American Experience (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990), 212. 6Ibid. 7W.E.B Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York, NY: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003), 135. 8Melva Wilson Costen, African American Worship (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2007), 35. 9Cleophus J. LaRue, The Heart of Black Preaching (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000), 10. 10William B. McClain, Come Sunday: The Liturgy of Zion (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1990), 63. 11Thomas G Long, The Witness of Preaching, Second Edition (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2005), 23. 12McClain, 63.

27 13Gardner C. Taylor, “There is Power in that Cross,” in The Words of Gardner Taylor: Special Occasion and Expository Sermons, ed. Edward L. Taylor, volume 4 (Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press, 2001), 31. 14George, Massey, Smith, Our Sufficiency is God, 149. 15Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 6, 32. 16James Cone, God of the Oppressed, rev. ed. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997), 5. 17Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 4, 64. 18Ibid. 19Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 1, 13. 20Bill George, Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2003), 12. 21Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Press, 2000), 694. 22Long, 242. 23Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 4, 32. 24Ibid. 25Ibid. 26Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 3, 116-21. 27David Helm, Expositional Preaching: How We Speak God’s Word Today (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2014), 39; Also, Roy B. Zuck, Basics of Biblical Interpretation: A Practical Guide to Discovering Biblical Truth (Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 1995), 63. 28Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 6, 178. 29Ibid., 179. 30Ronald A. Heifetz, Leadership Without Easy Answers (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994), 2. 31Taylor, Words of Gardner Taylor, vol. 4, 122. LEARNING FROM THE PULPIT LEADERSHIP OF GARDNER CALVIN TAYLOR

28 Ducere Est Servire: THE LEADERSHIP JOURNAL OF DALLAS BAPTIST UNIVERSITY Generational Divide: The Future of Women’s Ministry in the 21st Century Barbara J. Parker, Ph.D., Ed.D. Dr. Barbara J. Parker (Educational Leadership, '17) serves as Women’s Leadership Specialist with the Dallas Baptist Association. Women’s ministry has been defined in many ways, but all the descriptions have similar properties. Brisco, McIntyre, and Seversen described the purpose of women’s ministry as being to encourage, equip, and evangelize women.1 Miller stated women’s ministry is “a function of the Body of Christ in which women are educated, equipped, and empowered to be discipled by other women … and is not necessarily limited to an official women’s ministry division of church life.”2 Martin and Stovall gave a slightly broader definition stating, “after a women’s ministry identifies its unique purpose within the local church body, then that purpose is accomplished through the five functions of reaching, nurturing, involving, engaging, and supporting.”3 Echoing the millennial woman’s call for change, Alsup described ministry for women as recognizing that: …while all believers need overarching biblical truths, some need discipleship that focuses on a particular area of need. One size does not fit all. Therefore, holistic discipleship can’t happen through institutions alone. True discipleship, as Jesus demonstrated with his twelve, is born out of personal relationship.4 Thus, the general purpose of women’s ministry relates directly to the mission of the local church and is accomplished through relationships that educate, equip, and empower women. Over the past decade women’s ministry has been changing. Even the name women’s ministry is being replaced in preference of the term women in ministry to emphasize the changing focus from introspective