Page 36 - Volume 6 - Issue 1 - DBU Journal for K-12 Educational Leadership

34 technology professional learning, & maintain digital citizenship, until seeing their results from the TIM observation (Zhong, 2017, p. 28). It can be implied that teachers in the current study had this viewpoint because they view leaders as managerial rather than as leaders who facilitate learning. Teachers valued a conducive climate and culture that is safe for teachers to take risks and fail as they explore integrating technology at higher levels in the classroom. It can be implied that teachers’ perceived digital leadership had little impact on their efficacy to integrate technology at higher levels in the classroom, however data revealed they implied it is essential. Figure 2 summarizes suggested influencers of the second digital divide from the current study’s findings. Implications Technology Integration Technology integration is a continuously changing term that has been difficult to comprehensively define (Earle, 2002; Ertmer, 1999; Liu et al., 2016; Parker et al., 2019). Data from the current study support previous research as all participants had varying definitions for high-level technology integration. Effective high-level integration is characterized by the authentic development of 21st-century skills for students by utilizing technology to strategically enhance pedagogical decisions (Harmes et al., 2016; Kozdras & Welsh, 2018). Additional research suggests that educators are shifting from viewing technology as solely using a computer, device, or software during instruction to viewing it as a tool that assists students with mastering learning goals (Davies, 2011). Findings from the current study do not support this research. Although participants understood that technology should be integrated into the classroom to engage students in learning, many did not see it as a tool to assist with student mastery. Teachers Perceptions Teachers’ perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes play the most integral role in integrating technology in their classrooms (Chen, 2008; Ertmer, 2005; Ismaili, 2021; Kim et al., 2013; Ashley Parks, EdD Figure 2 Summary of Suggested Influencers of the Second Divide Implications Technology Integration Influencers of the Second Digital Divide Insufficient Technology Resources Poor Infrastructure Unclear Operating Definition of Technology Integration Low Digital Wisdom COVID Learning Loss Inadequate Professional Learning Lack of Access to Online Learning Tools Poor Culture and Climate Figure 2 Summary of Suggested Influencers of the Second Divide