Page 35 - Volume 6 - Issue 1 - DBU Journal for K-12 Educational Leadership

Journal of K-12 Educational Research 33 classroom. Teachers viewed learning loss from COVID and poor technology infrastructure as the significant barriers that influenced their apprehensive attitudes towards integrating technology more frequently. Findings showed that more than half of the teacher’s observations aligned to their perceived level of integration of the lesson observed. Though teachers perceived the correct level of integration in isolation, they did not perceive accurate characteristics of the learning environment. Most participants perceived they had a “collaborative” learning environment when the researcher observed them at the “active” level, which is the lowest. These findings suggest that technology cannot supersede the curriculum because expertise in pedagogy is necessary for high-level implementation. Though no participants reached “infusion” or above, it can be implied that digital wisdom must encompass digital skills, attitudes/beliefs, and most importantly, application. Research Question 4 (RQ4) How do teachers’ perceptions of digital leadership influence their efficacy to integrate technology at a high level in the classroom? RQ4 explored digital leadership behaviors that impacted teachers’ efficacy in integrating technology. The nodes leadership attributes, district/campus barriers, and learning to use technology emerged from inductive coding. Findings showed that teachers have learned to use technology in the classroom from teaching themselves or learning from colleagues/peers more than from professional learning provided at the campus or district level. Teachers did not initially express professional learning as a barrier but communicated that a lack of training on using technology in the classroom existed at the campus and district levels. It could be implied that because technology trainings are rarely offered, teachers overlook the need and instead rely on themselves to learn effective integration. Once teachers understood their observed level of technology integration, they realized additional professional learning support was needed. Teachers also did not implicitly express the need for effective digital leadership, which is characterized as the use of instructional technology to lead digital transformation, sustain a digital culture, support Figure 1 Summary of Themes and Nodes Aligned to Each Research Question 4 levels of technology integration versus the observed level of integration identified by the researcher utilizing the TIM. Figure 1 summarizes the three themes and major nodes aligned to each research question. Figure 1 Summary of Themes and Nodes Aligned to Each Research Question Research Question 1 (RQ1) What are teachers’ perceptions of high-level technology integration in the classroom? RQ1 examined teacher’ digital wisdom by identifying their operational definition of high-level technology integration based on their individual experiences and knowledge of technology. Inductive coding revealed that teachers perceive high-level integration as curriculum alignment to content standards, frequent use in the classroom, integration of various technology RQ1: Digital Wisdom High Level Technology Integration Teacher Perceptions Feasibility and Comfortability Benefits of Technology RQ2 and RQ3: Resource Availability and Teacher Attitudes Integration Teacher Perceptions Attitudes and Beliefs Campus and District Facing Barriers Frequency of Use RQ4: Environment and Levels of Integration Leadership Attributes Campus/District Barriers Learn to Use Technology Professional Learning