Page 63 - Volume 6 - Issue 1 - DBU Journal for K-12 Educational Leadership

Journal of K-12 Educational Research 61 and teacher retention, which would be a first step towards establishing causation. The current study shows that SWPBIS is not a manualized, scripted program that can be implemented using a one size fits all approach. According to the National Education Association (2014), “it requires adopting and organizing evidence-based behavioral interventions into an integrated continuum that enhances academic and social behavior outcomes for all students” (p. 2). This requires school districts to invest the time and resources necessary to adequately train campus leaders and staff to design, implement, and sustain SWPBIS practices. Given the current retention rates in public schools across the United States, a comprehensive professional development plan would need to account for the training of new teachers each year. While there are studies analyzing changes in teacher retention rates after the implementation of SWPBIS, there is limited research that incorporates an analysis of the fidelity with which the SWPBIS program was implemented in relation to discipline referral data and teacher retention data. The results of the current study suggest that more research is needed to establish causation. References Bradshaw, C. P., & Pas, E. T. (2011). A statewide scale up of positive behavioral interventions and supports: A description of the development of systems of support and analysis of adoption and implementation. School Psychology Review, 40(4), 530-548. Childs, K. E., Kincaid, D., George, H. P., & Gage, N. A. (2016). The relationship between school-wide implementation of positive behavior intervention and supports and student discipline outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(2), 89-99. Cohen, R., Kincaid, D., & Childs, K. E. (2007). Measuring School-wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 203-213. Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach, B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., & Horner, R. (2016). Relationship between school- wide positive behavior interventions and supports and academic, attendance, and behavior outcomes in high schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(1), 41-51. 1098300715580992 Gettinger, M., Stoiber, K., & Koscik, R. (2008, August 1). Effects of a preparation focused on accommodating children with challenging behaviors. Teacher Education and Special Education, 31(3), 164-181. Hanover Research. (2013). Equitable discipline through positive behavior disciplines and supports. Hanover Research. Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534. Kim, J., McIntosh, K., Mercer, S., & Nese, R.N. (2018). Longitudinal associations between SWPBIS fidelity of implementation and behavior and academic outcomes. Behavior Disorders, 43(3), 357-369. Ladd, H. F., & Sorensen, L. C. (2017). Returns to teacher experience: Student achievement and motivation in middle school. 112%20Update_0.pdf National Education Association. (2014). Positive behavioral interventions and supports: A multi-tiered framework that works for every student. Nocera, E. J., Whitbread, K. M., & Nocera, G. P. (2014). A review and analysis of selected school climate measures. The Clearing House, 91(2), 47-58. O’Neill, R. E., Johnson, J. W., Kiefer-O’Donnell, R., & McDonnell, J. J. (2001, Spring). Preparing teachers and consultants for the challenge of severe problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(2), 101-108. Ross, S. W., Romer, N., & Horner, R. H. (2012, April). Teacher well-being and the implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(2), 118-128. Shaw, J., & Newton, J. (2014). Teacher retention and satisfaction with a servant leader as principal. Education, 135(1), 101- 106. Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., & Negron, M. (2008). Schoolwide positive behavior supports: Primary systems and practices- Schoolwide positive behavior supports asks schools to select outcomes, data, practices, and systems, the four critical elements that are contextually appropriate and