Page 41 - Volume 6 - Issue 1 - DBU Journal for K-12 Educational Leadership

Journal of K-12 Educational Research 39 A GENERATIONAL STUDY ON THE VALUE AND PERCEIVED PRESENCE OF RETENTION FACTORS FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS Kimberly Sue Kossel Coppens, EdD Introduction Teacher turnover is an unsolved, expensive problem that has plagued education for decades (Glickman et al., 2018; Learning Policy Institute, 2018). The emergence of the Millennial generation as the largest percentage of the workforce (Economy, 2019) has attracted the attention of leaders (Deloitte, 2016; Gallup, 2016). This generation is known as the most mobile cohort in perpetual search for jobs that meet Millennials’ needs for purpose, recognition, mentorship, achievement, advancement, teamwork, and workplace relationships while also providing a healthy work-life balance (Abrams & von Frank, 2013; Deloitte, 2016; Gallup, 2016). Educational leaders need to understand what changes to make in the educational workplace to build stable, thriving schools (Abrams & von Frank, 2013; Coggshall et al., 2011; Lovely & Buffum, 2007). Much research has been performed on teacher retention; however, generational differences in workplace values among secondary teachers has not been the focus. The current study helps educational leaders identify if the teacher turnover problem can be solved for all ages of teachers, or if the Millennial generation requires a unique solution. The Generational Cohort Theory which cites differences in workplace values due to the influence of parental culture and historical events during childhood (Inglehart, 1977) became well accepted until 2006 when researchers started to challenge the theory with the concern that differences were more perceived than actual (Giancola, 2006). Research studies on generational workplace values were conducted in a variety of sectors; however, education was not included (Lester et al., 2012; Mencl & Lester, 2014). Summary of the Study The current researcher sought to expand the body of research by synthesizing teacher turnover reasons and Millennial needs in the creation of a questionnaire, The Secondary Teacher Value and Presence Questionnaire (STVPQ), specifically to assess educators’ workplace values on five workplace factors, including: (1) Purpose/ Recognition, (2) Development, (3) Leadership, (4) Workplace Relationships, and (5) Work-Life Balance. The researcher confirmed content validity with 31 experts in educational leadership and conducted a pilot study with 40 secondary teachers to confirm reliability. Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio (CVR) formula expects at least 50% agreement amongst experts (Ayre & Scalley, 2014). Reliability is achieved if all of the items in each factor measure the same characteristic (Yockey, 2018) with researchers insisting on a minimum of .70 to claim internal consistency (Briggs & Cheek, 1984; Pallant, 2013). Table 1 provides the validity and reliability data, along with an example of an item in each workplace factor on the STVPQ. Along with assessing workplace values, the questionnaire also examined perceived presence of these values to identify improvement goals for the District to aid in secondary teacher retention. The demographic factors of Journal of K-12 Educational Research 2022, VOL. 6, ISSUE 1